Cartagena protocol on Biosafety is an international treaty as a supplement to the Convention on Biological Diversity, governing the movements of Living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology from one country to another. The protocol seeks to protect the biological diversity from potential threat posed by genetically modified organisms. It was adopted on 29th January 2000 and entered into force on 11th September 2003. The total no. of countries agreeing to the protocol is 166. Afghanistan became the 165th country to agree to the conditions of the protocol.
LMOs or the Living Modified Organisms are the genetically modified organisms obtained through the use of modern biotechnology and are capable of transferring genetic material. The protocol states that Parties to the Protocol must ensure that LMOs are handled, packaged and transported under conditions of safety. The shipment of LMOs subject to transboundary movement must be accompanied by appropriate documentation specifying identity of LMOs and contact point for further information. This is done to aid the importing country make informed decision whether or not to import the LMOs. It is mandatory for the parties to adopt measures for managing any risks identified by the risk assessment and take necessary steps in the event of accidental release of LMOs.
Some Genetically Modified Organisms mentioned under LMOs :
||Roundup Ready soybean, Vistive Gold|
||Tobacco, Arabidopsis, Canola, Brinjal, Rose|
|Mammals||Mouse, Herman the Bull, Knockout rat|
|Other animals||Insects, Fish (Glofish, Salmon)|
|Bacteria and viruses||Ice-minus bacteria, Hepatitis B vaccine, Oncolytic virus|