Before 1976 education was a state matter. But after Constitution amendment of 1976, it was put under Concurrent List. This had far reaching effect on the education system. The new system included financial and administrative sharing between the state and union Government.
National Education system is based on national curricular framework which envisages a common core along with other region specific curriculum.
- Sarva Siksha Abhiyan
Launched in 2001 it is India’s one of the major flagship program towards universalisation of Education.
SSA has been launched with the partnership of the State Governments. It reaches out to 192 million Childre.
The Goals of SSA are:
- Enrolment of all children in school, education guarantee centers and alternative Schools.
- Retention of all children till upper primary stage.
- Bridging of gender and social category gaps in enrolment, retention and learning.
- Ensuring that there is significant enhancement in learning achievement level of children at the primary and upper primary level.
RTE-SSA program was implemented for a period of five years 2010-11 to 2014-15.
Under this program the focus is on girls, Children belonging to SC/ST communities, other weaker communities, Minorities and urban deprived children.
- NPEGEL Scheme:
National Program for Education of Girls at Elementary level (NPEGEL) scheme is a holistic effort to address obstacles to girls’ education at micro level through flexible, decentralized and decision making.
It emphasizes the responsibility of the teachers’ to recognize girls who are not able to cope with the pace of teaching in class and pay special attention to them. To bring them out of their vulnerability and prevent them from dropping out.
The scheme works through village level women’s and community groups to follow up girls’ enrolment, attendance and achievement.
- Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya Scheme
It provides for the setting up of residential upper primary schools for girls of SC, ST, OBC and Minority communities.
The scheme provides for minimum reservation of 75% seats for girls from SC/ST/OBC and minority communities and 25% seat for girls from below poverty line families.
- Mid Day Meals Scheme
National Program for Nutritional Support to Primary Education (NP-NSPE) or Mid Day Meal Scheme was launched by centrally Sponsored Scheme on 15th August 1995. It was initially launched to cover children from I to IV in Government & Govt. aided Educations but later i.e. after 2002 it was further extended to children studying in EGS and AIE. At present the Scheme covers children studying from I to VIII.
The objective of this scheme is:
- Improving nutritional status of children in classes I to VIII in government schools, local body, and govt. aided schools, EGS and AIE centers.
- Encourage poor children belonging to disadvantaged class, to attend school more regularly and participate in classroom activities.
- Provide nutritional support to children at primary stage in drought affected areas.
The scheme is borne entirely by Central Govt. and shared with the States and UTs.
It is monitored by representatives of the local bodies as Gram Sabha and Gram Panchayats, members of VECs and PTAs.
- Mahila Samakhya Scheme
Started in 1989, its goal is to concentrate program for the education and empowerment of women in rural areas particularly those from socially and economically margined groups.
It is currently implemented in 10 states. They are: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Assam, UP, Gujarat, Uttarakhand, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand and Bihar.
Few Important points:
- Art. 46 of Indian constitution (DPSP) direct the state to promote educational and economic interest of the weaker section of the people especially the SC/STs.
- Art. 330, 332, 335, 338 and the Fifth and Sixth Schedules deals with special provision for implementation of the objective set forward by Art. 46.
- National Commission for Minorities Educational Institutions (NCMI) was established on 11th November 2004 to advice the central and state governments on protection of constitutional rights of the minorities to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice.
- Presidential Award of the Certificate of Honors is conferred on scholars of Sanskrit, Pali, Arabic and Persian in recognition of their live time contribution to promote this field. It is awarded every year.
- Indian National Commission for Co-operation with UNESCO (INCCU) was established on 1949 and put on permanent footing of 1951. It has 5 sections: Education, Natural Sciences, Social Sciences, Culture and Communication. It advices the Government in matters falling under the domain of UNESCO.
- WIPO: India has been a member of WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) since 1979. WIPO is an agency of the UN that deals with copyright and other Intellectual Property issues.