Updated on 1 Jan 2020
In this post I have provided the latest list of the high courts in India for your exam preparations. Before we come to the list, let us brush up on a few important basics about high courts in India.
High Courts in India
The High Courts are the principal civil courts of original jurisdiction in the state, and can try all offences including those punishable with death. The work of most High Courts consists of Appeals from lowers courts and writ petitions in terms of Article 226 of the Constitution of India
There are 25 High Courts in India at present (including all the States and Union Territories). Each High Court has jurisdiction over a state, a union territory or a group of states and union territories.
High Courts are instituted as constitutional courts under Part VI, Chapter V, Article 214 of the Indian Constitution.
Appointment of Judges of High Courts in India
High Court is headed by the Chief Justice of that Court who is appointed by the President with the consultation of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and the Governor of the State. The other judges are appointed by the will of President, Governor and the Chief Justice of High Court.
Qualifications of the Judges of High Court
- He should be a citizen of India.
- He should have been
- A judge for 10 years of Subordinate court under the Judicial Service of the State OR
- An Advocate for 10 years in a High Courts in India (Article 217).
Tenure of Judges of High Courts in India
The tenure of judges in High Courts was raised to 62 years of age in 1963 in accordance to the 15th amendment of the Constitution. Originally the age of the retirement of the judges of the High Courts was 60 years.
Terms of Office
- A judge may leave his office by resigning addressing the letter of resignation to the President.
- A judge of High Court may be removed by the President if the Parliament passes a motion against him by an absolute majority and 2/3rd majority of the members present and voting, both the Houses sitting separately.
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Let us now take a look at the List of High Courts in India along with their establishment year, jurisdiction , seat , bench and act under which they were established.
|Court||Year of Establishment||Establishment Act||Jurisdiction||Principal seat||Bench||Current Chief Justice|
|Allahabad High Court||1866||Indian High Courts Act 1861||Uttar Pradesh||Allahabad||Lucknow||Govind Mathur|
|Andhra Pradesh High Court||2019||Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014||Andhra Pradesh||Amaravati||-||J. K. Maheshwari|
|Bombay High Court||1862||Indian High Courts Act 1861||Goa, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Maharashtra||Mumbai||Aurangabad, Nagpur, Panaji||Pradeep Nandrajog|
|Calcutta High Court||1862||Indian High Courts Act 1861||Andaman and Nicobar Islands, West Bengal||Kolkata||Port Blair, Jalpaiguri||T. B. Radhakrishnan|
|Chhattisgarh High Court||2000||Madhya Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000||Chhattisgarh||Bilaspur||-||P. R. Ramachandra Menon|
|Delhi High Court||1966||Delhi High Court Act, 1966||National Capital Territory of Delhi||New Delhi||-||Dhirubhai Naranbhai Patel|
|Gauhati High Court||1948||Government of India Act, 1935||Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Mizoram, Nagaland||Guwahati||Aizawl, Itanagar, Kohima||Ajai Lamba|
|Gujarat High Court||1960||Bombay Reorgansisation Act, 1960||Gujarat||Ahmedabad||-||Vikram Nath|
|Himachal Pradesh High Court||1971||State of Himachal Pradesh Act, 1970||Himachal Pradesh||Shimla||-||Lingappa Narayana Swamy|
|Jammu and Kashmir High Court||1928||Letters Patent issued by then Maharaja of Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019||Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh||Srinagar/Jammu||-||Gita Mittal|
|Jharkhand High Court||2000||Bihar Reorganisation Act, 2000||Jharkhand||Ranchi||-||Ravi Ranjan|
|Karnataka High Court||1905||Mysore High Court Act, 1884||Karnataka||Bangalore||Dharwad, Gulbarga||Abhay Shreeniwas Oka|
|Kerala High Court||1956||States Reorganisation Act, 1956||Kerala, Lakshadweep||Kochi||-||S. Manikumar|
|Madhya Pradesh High Court||1936||Government of India Act, 1935||Madhya Pradesh||Jabalpur||Gwalior, Indore||Ajay Kumar Mittal|
|Madras High Court||1905||Indian High Courts Act 1861||Tamil Nadu, Puducherry||Chennai, Madurai||Tamilnadu||Amreshwar Pratap Sahi|
|Manipur High Court||2013||North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) and Other Related Laws (Amendment) Act, 2012||Manipur||Imphal||-||Ramalingam Sudhakar|
|Meghalaya High Court||2013||North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) and Other Related Laws (Amendment) Act, 2012||Meghalaya||Shillong||-||Mohammad Rafiq|
|Orissa High Court||1948||Orissa High Court Ordinance, 1948||Odisha||Cuttack||-||Kalpesh Satyendra Jhaveri|
|Patna High Court||1916||Letters Patent issued by then British Crown||Bihar||Patna||-||Sanjay Karol|
|Punjab and Haryana High Court||1947||Punjab High Court Ordinance, 1947||Chandigarh, Haryana, Punjab||Chandigarh||-||Ravi Shankar Jha|
|Rajasthan High Court||1949||Rajasthan High Court Ordinance, 1949||Rajasthan||Jodhpur||Jaipur||Indrajit Mahanty|
|Sikkim High Court||1975||The 36th Amendment to the Indian Constitution||Sikkim||Gangtok||-||Arup Kumar Goswami|
|Telangana High Court||2019||Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014||Telangana||Hyderabad||-||Raghvendra Singh Chauhan|
|Tripura High Court||2013||North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) and Other Related Laws (Amendment) Act, 2012||Tripura||Agartala||-||Akil Abdulhamid Kureshi|
|Uttarakhand High Court||2000||Uttar Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000||Uttarakhand||Nainital||-||Ramesh Ranganathan|
Important Terms relating to High Courts in India
Tribunal – A tribunal is a term for any body acting judicially, whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title. For example, an advocate appearing before a Court on which a single Judge was sitting could describe that judge as ‘their tribunal’.
Permanent Bench – A permanent bench comprises of one or more High Court judges who sit yearlong at a particular location that is different from the permanent seat of the High Court.
Circuit Bench – A Circuit Bench is for territories which are far flung but do not have too many matters to justify a full fledged permanent bench. As a result, once or twice a year, some judges travel to these areas and dispose off all the High Court appeals of that jurisdiction.
Division Bench – In a Division Bench, a case is heard and judged by at least 2 judges.
Full Bench – A Full bench refers to a court of law consisting of a greater-than-normal number of judges.
Few Important & Facts about High Courts in India
- The Calcutta High Court is the oldest High Court in the country, established on 2 July 1862. The youngest High Court in India is the Andhra Pradesh High Court established on 1 January 2019.
- The Madras High Court in Chennai, Bombay High Court in Mumbai, Calcutta High Court in Kolkata and Allahabad High Court in Allahabad are the oldest four High Courts in India.
- The High Court in Allahabad was actually established in Agra. It was moved there in 1875.
- Three new High Courts were constituted in the northeast — Meghalaya, Manipur and Tripura in 2013.
- On March 31, 2017, women created history by heading all the four major and oldest High Courts of India. Bombay HC is headed by Chief Justice Manjula Chellur, Calcutta HC by Chief Justice Nishita Nirmal Mhatre, Madras HC by Chief Justice Indira Banerjee and Delhi HC by Chief Justice G Rohini.
- First female Judge of High Court was Anna Chandy.
- First female Chief Justice of High court is Leila Seth (Himachal Pradesh HC)
- India’s first e-court was opened at High Court of Judicature at Hyderabad in 2016.
After reading this post…
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