Constitution of India offers certain rights to all its citizen irrespective of race, place of birth, religion, caste, creed or sex. These rights are embodied in Part III of the Constitution. There are six categories of Fundamental Rights that are guaranteed by the Constitution of India. These Fundamental Rights are defined from Article 12-35 of Part III of the Constitution.
- Right to equality including equality before law, prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, gender or place of birth, and equality of opportunity in matters of employment;
- Right to freedom of speech and expression, assembly, association or union; movement; residence; and right to practice any profession or occupation (some of these rights are subject to security of the State, friendly relations with foreign countries, public order, decency or morality);
- Right against exploitation, prohibiting all forms of forced labour, child labour and traffic in human beings;
- Right to freedom of religion, including freedom of conscience and free profession, practice, and propagation of religion;
- Right of any section of citizens to conserve their culture, language or script, and right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice; and
- Right to constitutional remedies for enforcement of Fundamental Rights.
Note : 1. Right to Property was initially a Fundamental Right but was later ceased to be a Fundamental Right after the 44th Amendment Act.
2. Right to Education has also become a fundamental right from 2 April,2010 which makes elementary education an entitlement for children in 6–14 age group. It is incorporated in Article 21-A.
Amendments in Fundamental Rights
Amendments in Fundamental Rights needs a Constitutional Amendment which has to be passed by special majority of both Houses of Parliament.