Indian government has established 18 biosphere reserves in India. These include one or more Natural parks and preserves along with buffer zones that are open to some (controlled) economic use. Protection is granted not only to the animal species but also to the human communities residing on the fringes of these reserves. These reserves are rich in cultural and biological diversity. The biosphere reserves are representative of natural biomes and contain unique biosphere components.
The concept of biosphere reserve was launched in 1975 as a part of UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere Program.
The objectives of Biosphere reserve are:
- To conserve representative sample of ecosystem of world.
- To promote and facilitate ecological and environmental research.
- Provide opportunities of education and training to local people.
- Promote international co-operation.
Below is the list of Biosphere reserves of India.
|1||Great Rann of Kutch||Part of Kutch, Rajkot, Surendranagar and Patan Districts||Gujarat||Desert||Indian Wild Ass|
|2||Gulf of Mannar||Indian part of Gulf of Mannar extending from Rameswaram island in the North to Kanyakumari in the South of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka||Tamil Nadu||Coasts||Dugong or Sea Cow|
|3||Sundarbans||Part of delta of Gangesand Barahamaputra river system||West Bengal||Gangetic Delta||Royal Bengal Tiger|
|4||Cold Desert||Pin Valley National Park and surroundings; Chandratal and Sarchu & Kibber Wildlife Sancturary||Himachal Pradesh||Western Himalayas||Snow Leopard|
|5||Nanda Devi||Parts of Chamoli District, Pithoragarh District & Bageshwar District||Uttarakhand||Western Himalayas|
|6||Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve||Part of Waynad, Nagarhole, Bandipurand Mudumalai,Nilambur, Silent Valleyand Siruvani Hills||Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka||Western Ghats||Nilgiri Tahr, Lion-tailed macaque|
|7||Dihang-Dibang||Part of Siang and Dibang Valley||Arunachal Pradesh||Eastern Himalaya|
|8||Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve||Parts of Betul District, Hoshangabad Districtand Chhindwara District||Madhya Pradesh||Semi-Arid||Giant Squirrel, Flying Squirrel|
|9||Seshachalam Hills||Seshachalam Hill Ranges covering parts of Chittoor and Kadapa districts||Andhra Pradesh||Eastern Ghats|
|10||Simlipal||Part of Mayurbhanj district||Odisha||Deccan Peninsula||Gaur, Royal Bengal Tiger, Wild elephant|
|11||Achanakamar – Amarkantak||Part of Annupur, Dindoriand Bilaspur districts||Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh||Maikala Range|
|12||Manas||Part of Kokrajhar, Bongaigaon, Barpeta, Nalbari, Kamrup and Darrang Districts||Assam||East Himalayas||Golden Langur,Red Panda|
|13||Khangchendzonga||Parts of Kanchanjunga Hills||Sikkim||East Himalayas||Snow Leopard, Red Panda|
|14||Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve||Neyyar, Peppara and Shenduruny Wildlife Sanctuary and their adjoining areas||Kerala, Tamil Nadu||Western ghats||Nilgiri Tahr, Elephants|
|15||Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve||Southern most islands of Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Islands||Saltwater Crocodile|
|16||Nokrek||Part of Garo Hills||Meghalaya||East Himalayas||Red Panda|
|17||Dibru-Saikhowa||Part of Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts||Assam||East Himalayas||Golden Langur|
|18||Panna||Part of Panna and Chattarpur Districts||Madhya Pradesh||catchment area of the Ken River||tiger, chital, chinkara, sambhar and sloth bear|
Among these 9 reserves are parts of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves.
These are as follows:
|Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve||TamilNadu, Kerala,Karnataka|
|Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve||Tamil Nadu|
|Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve||West Bengal|
|Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve||Uttarakhand|
|Nokrek Biosphere Reserve||Meghalaya|
|Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve||Madhya Pradesh|
|Simlipal Biosphere Reserve||Odisha|
|Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve||Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh|
|Nicobar Islands||Andaman and Nicobar Islands|